These deer often live in woodlands, deciduous forests, mixed forests, marshes, meadows, and agricultural areas. There is also a population of hybrids with the nominate subspecies of fallow deer extant in Iran. The deer are housed in These deer are not particularly picky. For six thousand years the deer were one of the main sources of meat for the islands, in marked contrast to the rest of the world; from 7,000 to 4,500 years ago the deer appear to have become possibly the most important economic mainstay of the island, with deer bones amounting to 70% of the animal remains at some sites. The Persian Fallow Deer (Dama dama mesopotamica) is one of the kosher animals mentioned in Deuteronomy 14:4-5. Persian fallow deer has not been reported previously. Once upon a time, Persian fallow deer roamed freely across the Land of Israel. tall at the shoulder, while females (does) stand 30 – 33 in. Fallow deer live in a variety of climates ranging from cool-humid to warm-dry areas. It has been listed as endangered on the IUCN Red List since 2008. • They are under world (Convention for International Trade of . Fallow deer originally lived in Europe and portions of western Asia, but humans have since introduced them into many other areas across the globe. The smallest was at Kabuldagh Island, where six deer had been transferred in 1989. Persian Fallow Deer is an endangered species which is one of the endemic mammals of Iran. Persian fallow deer. It has also successfully been reintroduced into the wild. This species of deer has remarkably variable coloration.  In Israel the population does not appear to suffer from any of these small population size effects.  After a successful breeding program, many hundreds of deer have been derived from this original stock. Food. Ecography 29: 407 417.  By 1989 the deer were found in seven Iranian nature parks: Dez, Karcheh/Karkeh, Bachtaran, Ashk Island, Kabuldagh Island, Dasht-e Naz and Semeskandeh. A herd was kept in Britain in the 19th century. The Iranian Game and Fish Department quickly took actions to help conserve the Persian fallow deer by designating the Dez Wildlife Refuge and Karkeh Wildlife Refuge around the site of this animal's rediscovery, where indigenous populations are still conserved. , Persian fallow deer home range sizes vary based on gender and age. , From 1964 to 1967, the Iranian Game and Fish Department sent three expeditions to the Kareheh (old/new/different name for Karkeh?) In fact, many of the areas that humans have introduced these deer value them as tourist attractions or ornamental animals. , They were introduced to Cyprus by humans some 10,000 years ago, in the pre-pottery Neolithic (Cypro-PPNB), and expanded rapidly as the indigenous megafauna of the island became extinct, such as the endemic dwarf elephant and a pygmy hippo species. The Anatolian population appear to have co-existed with the normal fallow deer, which still survives there today, and interbred with it freely to form intermediate populations. They are browsers of leaves and shrubs, and also grazers of grasses.  By 2004, the total Iranian population had increased to approximately 340 individuals. The wild population utilizes riparian forest bushes. , In 1996, after breeding a stock 150 animals, Israel's Nature Reserves Authority began reintroducing the deer in the wild. A dozen deer were transferred every six months or so to an enclosed acclimatization area located in the reserve at Nahal Kziv in the Western Galilee. • The total population in reserves and free range in 2001 was approximately 290 animals. This common species is native to Europe, but has been introduced to Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, South Africa, Fernando Pó, São Tomé, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mayotte, Réunion, Seychelles, Comoro Islands, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Cyprus, Israel, Cape Verde, Lebanon, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, the United States, the …  Deer that are more daring generally disperse further. It has traditionally been considered to be a subspecies of the fallow deer from western Europe, Dama dama (as Dama dama mesopotamica), but is also treated as a distinct species by some authors. After mating, females have a gestation period around 8 months long. Once found in a wide range of areas across the Middle East, as its name suggests, the species almost died out except for a few individuals in Iran. The fawn is fully independent at around a year old, and female fawns can breed when they are 16 months old. Animals: A group of 31 captive Persian fallow deer. , It is thought that the main reason for the rarity of Persian fallow deer is human hunting since the early Neolithic era. In 1978, as the Iranian Revolution was unfolding, with the help of Prince Gholam Reza Pahlavi (the Shah's brother) and the chief of the games and wild life of Iran, the Israeli conservationists carried some of the captive fallow deer out of Iran and into Israel for safekeeping. However, in 1956, two dozen individuals were discovered in southwestern Iran. The deer from the breeding facility at Mount Carmel had much more success, with the majority surviving. The Persian fallow deer Dama dama mesopotamica is extremely rare in the wild, but reintroduction of breeding animals from the Hai-Bar Carmel, Israel, may be feasible. No, fallow deer do not make good pets. They live in small herds, usually in large enclosures with lots of grass and plants to browse on. Saltz, D. (1998) A long-term systematic approach to planning reintroductions: the Persian fallow deer and the Arabian oryx in Israel. Turkish Agricultural Minister Bekir Pakdemirli said that 23 fallow deer that will be released into nature in the western Manavgat and Köyceğiz districts are now in an adaptation process.. The decline of the Persian fallow deer’s habitat is also likely to have contributed to increased pressure from predators due to the loss of dense areas that can be used as a refuge from predators; this phenomenon has been noted in a similar deer species.  The removal of 28% of female deer from the breeding pool in the first year of reintroduction and then the removal of about 12 females during each subsequent year was deemed sufficient by him, while maintaining a breeding pool size of 250 deer. The Persian fallow deer (Dama mesopotamica) is a rare deer native to the Middle East, today occurring only in Iran and Israel by being reintroduced into the wild. The habitat they prefer usually is a combination of vegetation types. area of suitable habitats for the Persian fallow deer has declined by 30% within 18 years. Persian fallow deer were formerly found in Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and eastern Turkey. Like axis deer, adult fallow deer have spots. The Persian fallow deer is principally a grazer, with grass accounting for over 60% of its diet in summer. This study was carried out on forty pairs of Persian fallow deer . This study was conducted in Dez and Karkheh regions in southwestern Iran to model habitatsuitability of the Persian fallow deer Dama dama mesopotamicus and assessing trend of habitat changes since1989. Like most herbivores, their diet depends heavily on the season. The species, thought to be extinct by the 1940s, was subsequently rediscovered as a population of about 25 individuals in the Khuzestan Province in Iran in 1956. They reproduce readily in a zoological environment. It has also successfully been reintroduced into the wild.  When Modern Hebrew was formulated the KJB interpretation was followed, and the word is now used for fallow deer in Israel. They can survive in areas with frequent rainfall, or very little rainfall. found that deer which had been bred at the more busy Jerusalem Zoo were more likely to be killed, displayed less antipredator behaviour, and spent more time in the open: all twelve released animals from this facility were dead within 200 days. Iraq became a … Their natural range is throughout Europe, though they only live in the southern portions of Norway, Sweden, and Finland. and does weigh 66 – 110 lbs. It has an area of about 55 hectares near Mian-do-rood county. In the Hebrew Bible Deuteronomy 14:5, the yahmur is listed as the third species of animal that may be eaten. Enclosures: A Dead-End? Their colors include a range of yellow and black pattern, and some are even completely black. Their natural range is throughout Europe, though they only live in the southern portions of Norway, Sweden, and Finland. The species is clearly spreading, with sighting, droppings and camera traps showing a steady increase in population and a spread in distribution to the east.  Numbers are increasing rapidly in all populations. This discovery amazed nature conservationists across the world, and they collaborated to save the Fallow deer. , In 1957–1958, a wild pair of pure-blood fawns was captured and brought to the Opel Zoo in Germany, where the wild female gave birth to its first pure-blood captive female in 1960; however, the male partner did not survive long enough to produce a second fawn. Once the fawn is 7 months old the female begins weaning it off of milk. The fallow deer is a ruminant mammal belonging to the family Cervidae. , Before the Neolithic era, as humans first began to colonise Europe, Persian fallow deer were found in Mesopotamia, the Levant, and Anatolia. Population number . In the winter, the fallow deer browses on leaves. Read on to learn about the fallow deer. ", Bar-David, S., Saltz, D., and Dayan T. (2005). , The European zoo population clearly shows a lower allelic diversity than the Israeli population, and both these populations are less genomically diverse than the wild Iranian stock, which interestingly has about the same genetic diversity as the nominate Dama dama from Europe. Several possible causes exist for this reduction in survivorship soon after an individual is released into the wild, including the stress induced by releasing captive individuals into the wild and the reduced success of inexperienced mothers attempting to raise their first young in an unfamiliar habitat. Persian fallow deer are nearly extinct today. But by the end of the 19 th century, rampant poaching led them to disappear from the local landscape.  Trends in survival rates of the reintroduced deer were compared to several different models predicting population survival patterns. , The range of the deer has fluctuated between the millennia.  Interspecific competition with domestic livestock and habitat destruction may have contributed to their population decline, but around 10% of their former range still exists for habitation. , In 1875, when the species was first scientifically discovered, its range was restricted to southwestern and western Iran. Females often leave the herd and find a secluded location to give birth. Most bucks stand 33 – 37 in. In this study, R. microplus. Depending on the season, and the region, some fallow deer have very light coloration, particularly on their underside. Persian fallow deer are physically larger than fallow deer, and their antlers are bigger and less palmate.  It has been listed as endangered on the IUCN Red List since 2008. Females live in small herds outside of the breeding season, and herd size varies based on the amount of food available. After a captive breeding program, the population has rebounded from only a handful of deer in the 1960s to over a thousand individuals today. They give birth to a single baby, called a fawn. After a captive breeding program, the population has rebounded from only a handful of deer in the 1960s to over a thousand individuals today. , Their preferred habitat is a range of woodlands of tamarisk, oak, and pistachio. After a captive breeding program, the population has rebounded from only a handful of deer in the 1960s to over a thousand individuals today. The IUCN lists fallow deer as Least Concern.  This is the opposite of the situation a few years earlier, when the IUCN claimed that because there was a possibility that the Israeli population may have somehow become hybridised with European fallow deer, only the population in Iran should count as 'Persian fallow deer', and was thereby able to claim the species met the requirements for criterium D and could be called 'endangered'. They avoid roads, even when these are quiet such as during the coronavirus lockdown, and these limit their spread and movement. They have varied habitats, from mountain cliffs to rain forests and deserts of the Savanna. By repeatedly crossing the offspring with the original sperm, later generations have acquired an almost Mesopotamian genome and phenotype. Dama dama mesopotamica (also known as Persian Fallow or Meso Deer) STATUS • Critically Endangered in their native habitat in war ravaged countries. bc. The taxon was thought to be extinct again by the 1940s, but was subsequently rediscovered in the Khuzestan Province in southwestern Iran in 1956. The Persian fallow deer was introduced to Cyprus later than suids, dogs, cats, goats and cattle, and at nearly the same time as sheep, towards ca 8000 cal. , The reintroduction of fallow deer to Israel was due to an initiative by the Israel Nature and Parks Authority to restore biblically named mammals that had been lost. It was considered thought to had been distincted before 1955 A.D.(1334 A.P. The largest population, 50 to 70 animals, was at Dasht-e Naz. This species of deer is relatively large, and the biggest males (bucks) can weigh up to 330 lbs.  In 2003 there were 211 deer on Askh Island, 28 at Dasht-e Naz, and an unknown number at at least six other parks.  After 2002 the reintroductions dropped to about six animals a year, a situation maintained as of 2020. Without a male, a number of hybrids with the European fallow deer were born in Opel Zoo, all seven of these were sent to Dasht-e Naz back in Iran in 1973. Today, the only surviving indigenous populations are in the Dez Wildlife Refuge and Karkeh Wildlife Refuge in southwestern Iran. , Although 1,100 individuals as of 2015 means that the taxon no longer qualifies as 'endangered', the IUCN argues that only wild and mature animals in Israel count (300), and subtracts 50 from this number because it claims they may not be viably mature, and thus is still able to claim less than 250 animals exist, which then makes the taxon eligible for criterium D of the IUCN conservation status standards for 'endangered'. At the approach of the breeding season, males and females both move to designated breeding territories. On average, bucks weigh 130 – 220 lbs. Fallow deer habitat grows in Turkey ANKARA. has been reported as an important ectoparasite of these deer.  Later genetic research showed that Iran had never mixed the stocks. ), but some of them founded and tried to recover a population. A small number of the species currently live in some Iranian habitats. The Persian fallow deer occupies a range of woodlands, including pistachio, tamarisk, and oak woodlands. • They have been heavily poached for trophies and venison (meat). Although some authorities disagree whether there are one or two species of European fallow deer, most place it in its … They occurred in significant numbers at the aceramic Neolithic sites of throughout Cyprus, such as Khirokitia, Kalavasos-Tenta, Cap Andreas Kastros, and Ais Yiorkis, and were important through the Cypriot Bronze Age. , A natural predator of the deer is the wolf.  Iran immediately removed the hybrids from their breeding stock at Dasht-e Naz to Semeskandeh. In the fall the proportion of fruits such as nuts increases. The Persian fallow deer is a rare ruminant mammal on the verge of extinction. , They can live at least until eleven years old in the wild. Pleistocene fallow deer of the region were larger, extant populations have evolved into smaller animals. Many areas only have small herds of this species of deer, which pose no problem to native wildlife.  Hunters may have shot an animal in the 1990s. As a result of conservation efforts thus far, as of 2015, the current world population of the Persian fallow deer is estimated to be over 1,100 individuals, with just over half in Israel: there were 300 specimens living in the wild and 270 in captivity in Israel. The reintroduced population's survival best matched the model that assumed the chance of survival would only depend on an individual deer's time since release, which was statistically about three times more probable, on average, than the other models that were tested. They can also survive in areas that are quite cold, or areas that are quite hot.
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