He explains that Hinduism and Islam are totally different from each other. Today is the birthday (973) of Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Bīrūnī ( ابوریحان بیرونی), commonly called Al-Biruni in English. , Ninety-five of 146 books known to have been written by Bīrūnī were devoted to astronomy, mathematics, and related subjects like mathematical geography. Al-Biruni…  He strived to understand them on their own terms rather than trying to prove them wrong. marching … Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Biruni University is one of the Top Turkish Universities and the Ministry of the Higher Education accredits it. , In his Codex Masudicus (1037), Al-Biruni theorized the existence of a landmass along the vast ocean between Asia and Europe, or what is today known as the Americas. In addition to this type of influence, Al-Biruni was also influenced by other nations, such as the Greeks, who he took inspiration from when he turned to studies of philosophy. , A film about his life, Abu Raykhan Beruni, was released in the Soviet Union in 1974.. Pronunciation of Nicolosi with 1 audio pronunciation, 3 translations and more for Nicolosi. In his description of Sijzi's astrolabe he hints at contemporary debates over the movement of the earth. , Al-Biruni was well versed in physics, mathematics, astronomy, and natural sciences, and also distinguished himself as a historian, chronologist and linguist. He did not go on about deeds that each one carried out during their reign, which keeps in line with Al-Biruni's mission to try to stay away from political histories. Their court at Gorganj (also in Khwarezm) was gaining fame for its gathering of brilliant scientists. 60 & 67-69. He stated that he was fully objective in his writings, remaining unbiased like a proper historian should. This is used to weigh an object by submerging it in water and then measuring the liquid it displaces. There he wrote his first important work, al-Athar al-Baqqiya 'an al-Qorun al-Khaliyya (literally: "The remaining traces of past centuries" and translated as "Chronology of ancient nations" or "Vestiges of the Past") on historical and scientific chronology, probably around 1000 A.D., though he later made some amendments to the book. In 998 the leader Mahmud seized the throne of the kingdom of Ghazna, which included the land that is now Afghanistan and northeastern Iran. He used a dip angle of 34 arc minutes in his calculations, but refraction can typically alter the measured dip angle by about 1/6, making his calculation only accurate to within about 20% of the true value. He spent much of his life in Ghazni, then capital of the Ghaznavid dynasty, in modern-day central-eastern Afghanistan. Use Youtube to practice the pronunciation of urganch in real conversation.  He wrote a treatise on the astrolabe, describing how to use it to tell the time and as a quadrant for surveying. Al-Biruni's “Chronology of Ancient Nations” attempted to accurate… Al-Biruni experimented with using balances to measure the weight and density of materials. The two wrote letters to each other in which they shared scientific ideas.  Al-Biruni wrote an encyclopedic work on India called Taḥqīq mā li-l-Hind min maqūlah maqbūlah fī al-ʿaql aw mardhūlah (variously translated as "Verifying All That the Indians Recount, the Reasonable and the Unreasonable" or "The book confirming what pertains to India, whether rational or despicable") in which he explored nearly every aspect of Indian life, including religion, history, geography, geology, science, and mathematics. He demanded that both al-Biruni and Avicenna join his court at Ghazna (now the city of Ghazni, in eastern Afghanistan). He sought to find a method to measure the height of the sun, and created a makeshift quadrant for that purpose. were incorporated in Mahmud’s Indian army; and Al- beruni—what Geography. He carried on a lengthy correspondence and sometimes heated debate with Ibn Sina, in which Biruni repeatedly attacks Aristotle's celestial physics: he argues by simple experiment that vacuum must exist; he is "amazed" by the weakness of Aristotle's argument against elliptical orbits on the basis that they would create vacuum; he attacks the immutability of the celestial spheres; and so on. We’ve been busy, working hard to bring you new features and an updated design. During these trips al-Biruni recorded observations about Indian life, language, and religion. Biruni notes in the beginning of his book how the Muslims had a hard time learning about Hindu knowledge and culture. ", He further stated that Aristotle, whose arguments Avicenna uses, contradicted himself when he stated that the universe and matter has a start whilst holding on to the idea that matter is pre-eternal. "The Semantic Distinction between the Terms Astronomy and Astrology according to al-Biruni", Isis 55 (3): 343-349. He left his homeland for Bukhara, then under the Samanid ruler Mansur II the son of Nuh. (1910, Vol. The paper  contains a letter that al-Biruni wrote to al-Sijzi (translated into English in ) which contains proofs of both the plane and spherical versions of the sine theorem. Using an Arabic mile equal to 1.225947 English miles, al-Biruni value of the radius was equal to 3928.77 English miles, which compares favourably, being different of 2%, with the mean radius of curvature of the reference ellipsoid at the latitude of measurement; this mean radius is of 3847.80 It lists synonyms for drug names in Syriac, Persian, Greek, Baluchi, Afghan, Kurdi, and some Indian languages.  He was sympathetic to the Afrighids, who were overthrown by the rival dynasty of Ma'munids in 995. He classified gems by what he considered their primary physical properties, such as specific gravity and hardness, rather than the common practice of the time of classifying them by colour. , 11th-century Persian scholar and polymath, An imaginary rendition of Al Biruni on a 1973, Mathematics, astronomy and invention of minutes and seconds, تحقيق ما للهند من مقولة معقولة في العقل أو مرذولة, Akhtar, Zia. Biruni's main essay on political history, Kitāb al-musāmara fī aḵbār Ḵᵛārazm (Book of nightly conversation concerning the affairs of Ḵᵛārazm) is now known only from quotations in Bayhaqī's Tārīkh-e Masʿūdī.  Along with his writing, Al-Biruni also made sure to extend his study to science while on the expeditions. Al-Biruni was the most original scholar of the medieval Islamic world. In June 2009, Iran donated a pavilion to the United Nations Office in Vienna—placed in the central Memorial Plaza of the Vienna International Center. Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi was a Persian mathematician, astronomer, astrologer geographer and a scholar in the House of Wisdom in Baghdad. 60 (60): 9–10. Kitab Tarikh Al-Hind and Aims of Writing it. , Bīrūnī devised a novel method of determining the earth's radius by means of the observation of the height of a mountain. BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN. As part of this project, an entirely new edition of the text, with critical apparatus, English translation, and commentary, is now in preparation. , The dispassionate account of Hinduism given by Al-Biruni was remarkable for its time. Abū al-Rayhān Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Bīrūnī [pronunciation?] Al-Biruni was the most original scholar of the medieval Islamic world. Al-Khwarizmi flourished while working as a member of the House of Wisdom in Baghdad under the leadership of Kalif al-Mamun, the son of the Khalif Harun al-Rashid, who was made famous in the Arabian Nights. Choose a language from the menu above to view a computer-translated version of this page. , Biruni wrote most of his works in Arabic, as the scientific language of his age, however, his Persian version of the Al-Tafhim is one of the most important of the early works of science in the Persian language, and is a rich source for Persian prose and lexicography. Kitab-almanshurdt. RAIN. Mathematics and Astronomy", "BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN vi. Ahmed, Akbar S. (1984).  He studied almost all fields of science and was compensated for his research and strenuous work. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. The House of Wisd… We hope you and your family enjoy the NEW Britannica Kids. He wrote some 150 books, about half of them on astronomy or mathematics.The others explored a wide range of subjects, from physics to gems to world cultures.. Al-Biruni was born on September 4, 973, in Khwarezm, in what is now Uzbekistan.Little is known of his early life. , One of the specific aspects of Hindu life that Al-Biruni studied was the Hindu calendar.  He lived during the Islamic Golden Age, when the Abbasid Caliphs promoted the research of astronomy. Improved homework resources designed to support a variety of curriculum subjects and standards. Civil wars among local dynasties forced him to move frequently, and he served more than six different princes. , Al-Biruni was the person who first subdivided the hour sexagesimally into minutes, seconds, thirds and fourths in 1000 while discussing Jewish months. 973-c. 1050. Al-Biruni's “Chronology of Ancient Nations” attempted to accurately establish the length of various historical eras. » YThi  Biruni was made court astrologer and accompanied Mahmud on his invasions into India, living there for a few years. Out of 6,028,151 records in the U.S. Social Security Administration public data, the first name Biruni was not present. He was inspired by the arguments offered by Indian scholars who believed earth must be globular in shape, which they felt was the only way to fully explain the difference in daylight hours by latitude, seasons and earth's relative positions with moon and stars. This question is most difficult to solve. He further argued that stating there is a change in the creator would mean there is a change in the effect (meaning the universe has change) and that the universe coming into being after not being is such a change (and so arguing there is no change - no beginning - means Aristotle believes the creator is negated). The lack of description of battle and politics makes those parts of the picture completely lost. The work includes research on a vast array of topics of Indian culture, including descriptions of their traditions and customs. , Most of the works of Al-Biruni are in Arabic although he seemingly wrote the Kitab al-Tafhim in both Persian and Arabic, showing his mastery over both languages. Thank you for helping build the largest language community on the internet.  Royalty and powerful members of society sought out Al-Biruni to conduct research and study to uncover certain findings. Biruni left his hometown at a young age and he wandered around Persia and Uzbekistan. Fun Facts about the name Biruni. An English Language Edition with Notes and Indices by Dr. Edward C. Sachau in two volumes. Al-Biruni was a master in applying mathematical theories to astronomy. During his stay in the city of Gurgan (now in northern Iran), he met the famous philosopher-scientist Avicenna (Ibn Sina). The exact length of a cubit is not clear; with an 18 inch cubit his estimate would be 3,600 miles, whereas with a 22 inch cubit his estimate would be 4,200 miles. 5 Feb. 2015. Listen to the audio pronunciation of Abu 'l-Rayhan al-Biruni on pronouncekiwi Sign in to disable ALL ads. Different forts and landmarks were able to be located, legitimizing Al-Biruni's contributions with their usefulness to even modern history and archeology. Al-Biruni, whose full name is Abū’l-Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad Al-Biruni, was born in 973 C.E. Encyclopædia Iranica, (1989, December 15).  His estimate was given as 12,803,337 cubits, so the accuracy of his estimate compared to the modern value depends on what conversion is used for cubits.  One significant problem with this approach is that Al-Biruni was not aware of atmospheric refraction and made no allowance for it. Al-Biruni collected books and studied with these Hindu scholars to become fluent in Sanskrit, discover and translate into Arabic the mathematics, science, medicine, astronomy and other fields of arts as practiced in 11th-century India. Over time, Al-Biruni won the welcome of Hindu scholars. Encyclopedia of World Biography. 2, pp. But, he did note how some of the accounts of information that he was given by natives of the land may not have been reliable in terms of complete accuracy, however, he did try to be as honest as possible in his writing. He describes the educated as monotheistic, believing that God is one, eternal, and omnipotent and eschewing all forms of idol worship. (4 tháng 9 hoặc 5 tháng 9 năm 973 – 13 tháng 12 năm 1148), được biết đến như Al-Biruni trong tiếng Anh, là một học giả, nhà toán học người Ba Tư theo đạo Hồi của vùng đất Khwarezm.. Al-Biruni được coi là …  He also criticized the Hindus on what he saw them do and not do, for example finding them deficient in curiosity about history and religion. Sep 30, Most of the works of Al-Biruni are in Arabic. Akhbar S. Ahmed concluded that Al-Biruni can be considered as the first Anthropologist, however, others argue that he hardly can be considered an anthropologist in the conventional sense.. ‘Al-Biruni wrote a note on Patanjali's Yoga sutra, Bhagavad-Gita and Sankhyakarika.’ ‘Vedas, shastras and sutras alike decry the killing and eating of animals’ ‘Clearly illustrated in Patanjali's yoga sutras, which states in the eight limbs that before meditation can begin one must possess concentration (Dharana).’ Al-Biruni’s Kitab-ul-Hind is simple and lucid. , After Al-Biruni's death, in the Ghaznavid dynasty and following centuries his work was not built on, nor referenced.  More recently, Biruni's eclipse data was used by Dunthorne in 1749 to help determine the acceleration of the moon, and his data on equinox times and eclipses was used as part of a study of Earth's past rotation. But, his details are brief and mostly just list rulers without referring to their real names. English Tafsir al-Jalalayn is one of the most significant tafsirs for the study of the Qur’an. 5 Feb. 2015, Hogendijk, Jan: The works of al-Bīrūnī – manuscripts, critical editions, translations and online links, ʿAjā'ib al-makhlūqāt wa gharā'ib al-mawjūdāt, Siraj ud-Din Muhammad ibn Abd ur-Rashid Sajawandi, The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing, Constantinople observatory of Taqi al-Din, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences, Geography and cartography in the medieval Islamic world, Alchemy and chemistry in the medieval Islamic world, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Al-Biruni&oldid=991924004, Scientists who worked on qibla determination, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles having different image on Wikidata and Wikipedia, Articles containing Persian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2018, Wikipedia external links cleanup from April 2017, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with TDVİA identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, A Critical Study of What India Says, Whether Accepted by Reason or Refused (, Book of Instruction in the Elements of the Art of Astrology (, History of Mahmud of Ghazni and his father, This page was last edited on 2 December 2020, at 15:20.  He used trigonometry to calculate the radius of the Earth using measurements of the height of a hill and measurement of the dip in the horizon from the top of that hill. , Biruni wrote a pharmacopoeia, the "Kitab al-saydala fi al-tibb" (Book on the Pharmacopoeia of Medicine). A new, third level of content, designed specially to meet the advanced needs of the sophisticated scholar.
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