Click for a hub of Extension resources related to the current COVID-19 situation. Duckweed Lemna minor L. has been applied, incorrectly, for New Zealand plants Family Araceae Authority Lemna disperma Hegelm. The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov, 28 March 2018).National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA. Individual plants consist of a single, flat oval leaf (technically a modified stem) no more than ¼ of an inch long that floats on the surface of still-moving ponds, lakes, and sloughs. In spring, the starch-filled turions rapidly begin to metabolize, causing the structure to float back to the surface and grow into a typical duckweed stem. More often, species propagate asexually by forming chains of new stems from vegetative buds. long and 1.5-3.5 mm. sp. Lemna minor range map. Lemna obcordata Bojer. ex Schleid.. Lemna minima Thuill. on. Nine duckweed species occur in North America. Cultivation: about 2-5 mm. Close-up of different duckweeds on the surface of a pond: Spirodela polyrhiza (large "leaves"), Lemna minor (medium), and Wolffia arrhiza (very small). Scientific Names. Disclaimer: ITIS taxonomy is based on the latest scientific consensus available, and is provided as a general reference source for interested parties. This It is in flower from June to July. Lemna conjugata publ Lemna cyclostasa Elliot ex Schleid. Lemna minor, Duckweed, is a floating aquatic that forms dense, bright green mats.Plants have one, two or three leaves with a root hanging in the water. Like duckweed, these species are floating aquatics Currently, 14 species of Lemna are recognised. rank among the smallest of all flowering plants. ex Schleid. However, it is not a legal authority for statutory or regulatory purposes. This plant has no children Legal Status. Noteworthy Characteristics Duckweeds are among the smallest of the flowering plants. Lemna minor L. Common Name: COMMON DUCKWEED Status: Native, OBL (NWPL) Specimen: View details of USF Herbarium specimens ** Not applicable or data not available. 1753. Date: 10-02 … Lemna cyclostasa Lemna minima Thuill. Some duckweed can also produce specialized buds called turions that break off the parental stem and sink to the bottom of a lake or pond to over-winter. Lemna minor NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to form a strategic partnership called N.C. 1400 Independence Ave., SW Turtle), Chrysemys picta (Painted Turtle), Emydoidea Illinois and it is widely distributed throughout the world. Roots to 15 cm, tip mostly rounded; sheath not winged. Common name i Common duckweed Synonym i-Other names i ›Lemna minor L. ›Lemna sp. This dormant Lemna minor is a PERENNIAL. Common Duckweed (Lemna minor): learn and get advice on how to grow, care, plant, water. are produced that sink to the bottom of the water body. Plant bodies are called thalli there is no distinct stem or leaves this species has a single root and is found floating on still waters. Lemna minor thalli on surface of small pond in the Tushar Mountains of southern Utah. During the cooler weather of fall, small starchy buds called 'turions' Duckweeds can also be “contact pollinated” through the collision of adjacent floating stems that jars pollen loose and on to the receptive stigma. Lemna is one of six genera in the monocot plant family Lemnaceae. (Greater Duckweed). Origin: Everywhere (5 continents) Ideal fertilization. Species. a correct identification. They have small air spaces to Müller (1873/1883) has speculated that insects living on the surface of Some vertebrate reproduces primarily by a budding process from two lateral reproductive cover the entire surface of a small body of water in some circumstances. OTHER NAME(S): Grains de Grenouille, Herbe aux Canards, Lemna minor, Lenteja de Agua, Lenticule Mineure, Lentille d'Eau, Merde de Grenouille, Petite Lentille d'Eau, Ranouillie. ex C.Krauss. They are deciduous, free-floating, aquatic perennials that form a rapidly-expanding mat of foliage (to 1/4” tall) on still water surfaces. This species is native to Another common name of Lemna minor is At (synonym) Lemna minor var. var. Terminal (leaf) node. Duckweed Duckweed are floating aquatic plants with the scientific name Lemnaceae, which are monocots (like grasses and palms) and are divided into five genera: Lemna, Spirodela, Wolffia, Landoltia, and Wolffiella. minor) was investigated every 3 days over a period of 2 weeks. Lemna rwandensis De Sloover. Recommended pH range for the species: 5.1 - 6.7. any name or code. ex C.Krauss Lemna palustris Haenke ex Mert. I am a male of 68 years lives in Pakistan . more complete listing of these species). the water are the pollinators of the rarely produced flowers. Photo by Bill Gray, Salt Lake City, Utah. ... Lemna minor. pools, marshes, and ditches. Lemna minor Taxonomy ID: 4472 (for references in articles please use NCBI:txid4472) current name Scientific name: Lemna minor. (Water Lily Aphid), Scirtes tibialis (Duckweed The duckweeds (genus Lemna) and related genera of the duckweed family (Lemnaceae) are the smallest flowering plants known. These rapidly growing plants have found uses as a model system for studies in community ecology, basic plant biology, ecotoxicology, and production of biopharmaceuticals, and as a source of animal feeds for agriculture and aquaculture. interior veins are usually visible (a central vein and 2 lateral veins) Scientists have recently come to appreciate the fast growth rate of duckweeds, however, and the plants are being used for bioremediation of waterways with excessive amounts of phosphorus and nitrogen from agricultural runoff. An offset is connected to the mother plant by a Scientific Name LECY4 Lemna cyclostasa Elliott ex Schleid. ex P.Beauv. Family: Araceae Scientific name: Lemna minor Common name: Common duckweed Native of: North America Greenhouse location: Rooms G and I Lemna minor. Both surfaces are glabrous. From: Comprehensive Water Quality and Purification, 2014 The surface floating macrophyte duckweed Lemna is the largest genus of the family Lemnaceae. The upper thallus surface is medium green and slightly convex Lemna minuta – least duckweed Origin: Native. Lemna minor Aquarium plant: Common Duckweed (Lemna minor). L. minor is used as animal fodder, bioremediator, for wastewater nutrient recovery, and other applications. across. The entire plant body consists of metabolically active non-structural tissue (Wolverton and McDonald, 1980) and the low fiber content of the plant has a beneficial impact on digestibility when used in animal feed. Lemna minor L. (Lenticchia d'acqua comune) Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, Università di Trieste - Progetto Dryades - Picture by Andrea Moro - Isola dell'Asinara, Comune di Porto Torres, ai piedi del Castellaccio lungo la strada, SS, Sardegna, Italia, - Image licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share-Alike 3.0 License Common name Common Duckweed Lesser duckweed. Duckweed family (Lemnaceae). Redhorse), Lepomis Interpreting Wetland Status. They are morphologically divergent members of the arum family. A single rootlet up to 2 cm. number of insects feed on the thalli of Lemna spp. including Munroessa Leaves are oval and up to eight millimetres long. The flower is replaced by a single fruit (1 mm. Scientific name Lemna L. Common names duckweed Family Lemnaceae Similar genera Spirodela, Wolffia, Wolffiella Native distribution cosmopolitan Species cultivated Lemna aequinoctialis Welw. Scientific Name; LECY4: Lemna cyclostasa Elliott ex Schleid. Lemna ovata A.Br. plant from one body of water to another, introducing it to new wetland Common Duckweed often forms dense colonies of plants from budding. sticky when they are wet, ducks and other wetland birds can carry this fall. 2: 970. Classification. across. Full the base of the rootlet, there is a short cylindrical sheath. and other duckweeds, especially ducks and turtles. The different species ... Names. of duckweed are often difficult to distinguish from each other, and an ex Schleid. Hydrophace minor (L.) Bubani. Lemna minor Linnaeus, Sp. across. LEMI2 Lemna minima Chevall. Lemna is a genus of free-floating aquatic plants referred to by the common name "duckweed." (synonym) Lemna minor var. long and 1.5-3.5 mm. Lemna minor. Find records where . However, species of Watermeal Two other groups of similar-looking plants Scientific name i: Lemna minor: Taxonomy navigation › Lemna. scientific name or synonym equals "Lemna minor" ... Searching For: scientific name or synonym equals "Lemna minor" Refine Search: Hide. Sora Rail (the Bird Table has a state continues until the warmer weather of spring, when the turions Common duckweed (L. minor) is the most widespread species, ranging across Canada and reported for all states except Hawaii and South Carolina. Scientific Name Lemna minor ← → Synonyms (former Scientific Names): Lemna cyclostasa . Scientific name : Lemna minor Family : Fabaceae Category : Perennials Type of plant : Perennial Sun loving Extra water Full description for Lemna minor not yet available. However, this plant (a) Lemna trisulca and Lemna minor.Investigations of the two species of Lemna, L. trisulca and L. minor have revealed a general capacity in these plants to metabolize C 16 fatty acids, such as 8Z,11Z,14Z-hexatrienoic acid, to a variety of hydroxy acids (e.g., (82)) and cyclopentanoids (e.g., (83) and (84)). Lemna vulgaris (Lam.) Lemna conjugata Willd. Common Duckweed Lemna minor Duckweed family (Lemnaceae) Description: This floating aquatic plant consists of a single oval or oval-obovate thallus (a body that combines the functions of leaf and stem); it is about 2-5 mm. scripta (Slider); see Lagler (1943) and Ernst et al. slender white stipe, but this soon withers away. Origin. Harvesting duckweeds as a crop can remove these pollutants and provide valuable livestock feed or fertilizer. scotlandae (Lemna Fly), and Sminthurides aquaticus (Water ouachitensis (Ouachita Map Turtle), Kinosternum Catfish), and Umbra Home Blog PLant encyclopedia Subscription What the press says about us phrakt It has a fairly wide pH tolerance. (Lemna minor Linnaeus) = Lemna Linnaeus 1753. or partial sun is required. flavescens (Yellow Mud Turtle), and Trachemys Pl. Individual plants consist of a single, flat oval leaf (technically a modified stem) no more than ¼ of an inch long that floats on the surface of still-moving ponds, lakes, and sloughs. Description: Results of this study proved that L. Lemna palustris Haenke ex Mert. Classification Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report. LEMNA MINOR lemna minor pellet Product Information Product Type HUMAN OTC DRUG Item Code (Source) NDC:15631-0273 Route of Administration ORAL Active Ingredient/Active Moiety Ingredient Name Basis of Strength Three species are commonly cultivated, although usually inadvertently, in aquaria and ponds. Plants are ovate in shape. Lemna obscura (Austin) Daubs Show All Show Tabs little duckweed within the body of the thallus. Family: Araceae. off. ex Schleid., not validly publ. Scientific Name: Lemna L. (Araceae) minor L. Related Plants. USDA, NRCS. Scientific name. The duckweeds (genus Lemna) and related genera of the duckweed family (Lemnaceae) are the smallest flowering plants known. Taxonomists believe the duckweed flowers are modified versions of the familiar leafy spathe and club-like spadix of the skunk cabbages, Jack-in-the-pulpit, calla lilies, and other members of the Arum family (Araceae), and indeed recent genetic studies suggest that duckweeds probably belong in an expanded version of the Arum family. This floating aquatic plant consists of a single oval or oval-obovate Removal efficiency of L. Usual maximum size in aquariums: 0 - 2 cm (0 - 0.79 inch) 0 14. Scientific Name: Lemna L. (Araceae) minor L. Related Plants There are no related plants for species Lemna minor. crysoleucas (Golden Shiner), Ameiurus spp. According to a common theory, the reason it got this name is that the ducks eat it and spread it around the world. Lemna minor Scientific name: Lemna minor Family: Araceae Usual maximum size in aquariums: 0 - 2 cm (0 - 0.79 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 5.1 - 6.7 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 4 - 30 N (71 Location Common ex Schleid. Binomial name: Lemna minor Common names: Common Duckweed, NZ Chickweed, Lesser Duckweed Lemna minoris a species of Lemna (duckweed) with a subcosmopolitan distribution, native throughout most of Africa, Asia, Europe and North America, occurring everywhere that freshwater ponds and slow-moving streams occur, except for arctic and subarctic climates. Ictiobus spp. In addition, you will gain experience in experimentally manipulating populations and learn how density-independent and density-dependent factors affect population growth. maggots of Lemnaphila Ecosystems. a single tiny flower is produced that spans about 1 mm. Phytoextraction of zinc, copper, lead, iron, and nickel from landfill leachate by duckweed (L. Lesser Duckweed. Under magnification, 3 Lemna conjugata Willd. The Atlas of Florida Plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information. Species Scientific Name Common Name Lemna minor common duckweed Lemna perpusilla flowering duckweed Lemna … Kurz Stem size and the number of roots (if any) distinguish other genera in the duckweed family. animals also feed on Lemna Scientific name i Lemna minor Taxonomy navigation › Lemna Terminal (leaf) node. obliteralis (Waterlily Leafcutter Moth), and Synclita tinealis (Black icciusalis (Pondside Pyralid Moth), Neocataclysta magnificalis (Scrollwork ex Schleid. Common Duckweed occurs throughout Illinois; it is the most common Lemna (1984/2005), Scotland (1940), and Kraatz (1918). Faunal Associations: along a faint longitudinal ridge; the lower thallus surface is light One plant produces two plantlets and those grow to produce two plantlets and so … Pyralid Moth), Synclita ex Schleid., not validly publ. Lemna Minor – One of the Best ... May name is Shamim. Range & Habitat: This plant can spread aggressively and may Carp), Notemigonus Washington DC 20250-1103, Pollinator-Friendly Best Management Practices, Native Plant Material Accomplishment Reports, Fading Gold: The Decline of Aspen in the West, Wildflowers, Part of the Pagentry of Fall Colors, Tall Forb Community of the Intermountain West, Strategic Planning, Budget And Accountability, Recreation, Heritage And Volunteer Resources, Watershed, Fish, Wildlife, Air And Rare Plants. rapidly reproducing plant species, Lemna minor or duckweed. Despite their diminutive size, the flowers of duckweeds can attract flies, mites, small spiders, and even bees that can spread the plant’s pollen after being attracted by sticky secretions from the stigma. Lemna minor thalli floating in slow-moving water.Photo by Robert H Mohlenbrock. gibbosus (Pumpkinseed), Cyprinus carpio (Common to the mother plant. 181 results for SPECIES: Lemna minor placeholder The search results include records for synonyms and child taxa of placeholder ( link placeholder ). Molecular data (Les and Crawford 1999) suggest … flower consists of a membranous cup-shaped scale, a single pistil, and The larvae of several moths also feed on the thalli, This duckweed is common in disturbed and OTHER NAME(S): Grains de Grenouille, Herbe aux Canards, Lemna minor, Lenteja de Agua, Lenticule Mineure, Lentille d'Eau, Merde de Grenouille, Petite Lentille d'Eau, Ranouillie. Stipes white, small, often decaying. Teal, Mallard, Ring-necked Duck, Trumpeter Swan, American Coot, and Lemna minor thalli on surface of small pond in the Tushar Mountains of southern Utah. Lemna minor thalli floating in slow-moving water.Photo by Robert H Mohlenbrock. The photograph was taken at a pond of Crystal Lake Park in Urbana, (1918) for more information. ex P.Beauv.. Lemna monorhiza Montandon. known to feed on duckweed to Lemna minor Name Synonyms Hydrophace minor (L.) Bubani Lemna conjugata Willd. Wetland Status. Photo by Bill Gray, Salt Lake City, Utah. A small & W.D.J.Koch. About Duckweed (Lemna minor) 2 Nurseries Carry This Plant Add to My Plant List Lemna minor (Common Duckweed or Lesser Duckweed) is a species of Lemna (duckweed) with a subcosmopolitan distribution, native throughout most of Africa, Asia, Europe and North America, occurring everywhere that freshwater ponds and slow-moving streams occur, except for arctic and subarctic climates. Common duckweed (Lemna minor) is one of the smallest flowering plants in the world.It grows on the surface of water, rapidly colonizing lakes and ponds by producing vegetative offsets and seeds. illegit. (synonym) Lemna minima Thuill. Lam.. Lenticula cyclostasa (Elliott ex Chev.) interior. Lemna minima . (Bullhead The following turtles are Habitats long Duckweed grows on water with relatively hi… Scientific name Scientific name (unprocessed) Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Subspecies Identified to rank Name match metric Lifeform Common name ... Lemna minor L. Catalogue number:NZFRI 28323 Collector: Miller, E.M. s.n. areas. Flowers can be produced anytime between late spring to early across. Ingredient Name Basis of Strength Strength; LEMNA MINOR (UNII: 621HHM46SV) (LEMNA MINOR - UNII:621HHM46SV) LEMNA MINOR: 30 [hp_C] in 1 mL: The duckweed inflorescence, consisting of two microscopic staminate flowers and one tiny pistillate flower in a pouch-like sac, is almost never seen. varying degrees: Chelydra serpentina (Snapping minima Chevall. Duckweeds are a source of food for several freshwater fishes, including Recommended water hardness (dGH): 4 - 30°N (71.43 - 535.71ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F. During the summer, The offsets of this budding process are identical genetically birds that feed on these plants include the Wood Duck, Green-winged Examples of wetland Accepted scientific name: Lemna minor L. (accepted name) Synonyms: Hydrophace minor (L.) Bubani (synonym) Lemna conjugata Willd. The nine species in the genus Lemna are generally small and free-floating plants (Leach and Osborne, 1985), and include Lemna minor, Lemna perpusilla, Lemna gibba, Lemna obscura, Lemna trisulca, Lemna valdiviana, Lemna aequinoctialis, Lemna turionifera and Lemna minuta (USDA-ARS, 2009). Lemna Minor has oval-shaped leaves with 1-8 mm long and up to 5 mm wide. Display as: Lemna minor – common duckweed, lesser duckweed, water lentil Distribution: Cosmopolitan in temperate and subtropical regions Habitat: In standing or slow-moving fresh water Origin: Native Flowers: June - October. Lemna Citation Citation ** Basionym: ** Type: ** ** Not applicable or data not available. blandingii (Blanding's Turtle), Graptemys Illinois. Drug Label Information. Leaves. is similar to:...Add additional search terms. Lenticule mineure . Comments: However, sexual reproduction is the exception rather than the rule in duckweeds. Lemna minor, the common duckweed or lesser duckweed, is a species of aquatic freshwater plant in the subfamily Lemnoideae of the arum family Araceae. 3. Growth Inhibition of Copper Oxide Engineered Nanoparticles to Lemna minor Authors: Kun Miao Lü, Shao Kun Men, Zhen Yu Wang Abstract: The emerging use of metal oxide engineered nanoparticles has given rise to concerns about their potential impact on the environment. include ponds and lakes, slowing moving creeks and rivers, vernal Scientific Name Authority L. Rank species Year 1753 Governing Code ICBN Is Recombination No Taxon Concept NZOR Concept Id 0adadfe6-397f-4f87-9123-1265d0bde79b According … (rarely longer) develops near the center of the thallus' lower surface. 2 anthers. thallus. limi (Central Mudminnow); see Forbes (1888) and Pearse This plant flourishes in water with a pH value of 5.1 to 6.7. The monotypic genus Landoltia is morphologically not very different from Lemna, and may not warrant separation of Landoltia punctata (G.F.W. Habit. Lemna monorhiza Montandon Lemna obcordata Bojer Lemna ovata A.Br. 2018. Scientific Name LEMIO Lemna minor L. var. because of numerous tiny air bubbles that are imbedded within its Preferred Names. Lemna minor L. Species recognized by EOL Dynamic Hierarchy 1.1 and EOL Dynamic Hierarchy 1.1. Lemna minima Thuill. Accepted scientific name: Lemna minor L. (accepted name) Synonyms: Hydrophace minor (L.) Bubani (synonym) Lemna conjugata Willd. relatively high in nutrients. minor (Common Duckweed) All members of this family Identifying duckweeds to species can be tricky due to their minute size and absence of showy floral characters. Duckweed tend to be larger in size and have 2 or more rootlets per Duckweeds grow quickly and produce new offshoots rapidly. off. Because the rootlets of duckweed are The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. long and 1.5-3.5 mm. Meyer) Les & Crawford into its own genus. on. Photographic Location: Common Duckweed Lemna minor Duckweed family (Lemnaceae) Description: This floating aquatic plant consists of a single oval or oval-obovate thallus (a body that combines the functions of leaf and stem); it is about 2-5 mm. Common Name: Duckweed, Common Scientific Name: Lemna minor Family: Duckweed (Lemnaceae) Other Common Names: Duck-meat, Watermeal, Ducks-meal Flower Color: White General Characteristics: This floating herb is approximately 1/8th of an inch long and the leaflet is oval is shape. Duckweeds and Watermeal (Lemna minor, Spirodela polyriza, Wolffia columbiana) | Minnesota DNR Duckweeds and Watermeal (Lemna minor, Spirodela polyriza, Wolffia columbiana) Common names: Lesser duckweed, duck's meat, water lentil. Springtail). It is hardy to zone (UK) 4 and is not frost tender. Nursery Availability (1994) for more information. FDA is not aware of scientific evidence to support homeopathy as effective. in length or a Lemna minor (Common Duckweed or Lesser Duckweed) is a species of Lemna (duckweed) with a subcosmopolitan distribution, native throughout most of Africa, Asia, Europe and North America, occurring everywhere that freshwater ponds and slow-moving streams occur, except for arctic and subarctic climates. are the Wolffia (Watermeal) and Spirodela Researchers are also developing techniques to use genetically modified duckweeds to synthesize insulin and other commercially valuable proteins (being plants, duckweeds are immune to animal viruses, making them invaluable in creating new biomedicines). There are no related plants for species Lemna minor. US Forest Service, FM-RM-VE They are abundant in the tropical and subtropical countries; growing profusely in still, nutrient-rich small ponds, ditches, and swamps or in slowly moving water bodies. & W.D.J tend to be smaller in size and lack rootlets, while species of Greater Beetle), Tanysphyrus lemnae (Duckweed Weevil), rise to the water surface and the growth process begins again. This plant adapts to fresh water that is stagnant or slow-moving and It has a structure consisting of 1 to 4 leaves with a root. Dense populations are an important food source for aquatic waterfowl and fish, but can become a nuisance to humans. minima Lemna minor var. All the advice on water parameters, growth, lighting and fertilization of your plant! minor significantly reduced the concentration of heavy metals in landfill leachate. ... Lemna minor L. – common duckweed Subordinate Taxa. ex P.Beauv. Common name i: Common duckweed: Synonym i-Other names i ›Lemna minor L. ›Lemna sp. These species include Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae consisting of small individual thalli. Hydrophace minor (L.) Bubani Lemna conjugata Willd. degraded wetlands, although it also occurs in higher quality wetlands. Bioconcentration factor and removal efficiency were also calculated. instrument with 10x magnification or higher is often necessary to make Scientific Name Lemna minor L. Family Araceae Common Names common or lesser duckweed, water lentil Eastern Washington Native Synonyms None Conservation Status Notes Click on any image to enlarge it. succulent texture and smooth margins; it is able to float on water Lemna perpusilla: root sheath winged at base, roots up to 3.5 cm long, usually sharply pointed at apex, and thalli without anthocyanic pigment (vs. L. minor, with the root sheath not winged at base, roots to 15 cm long, frequently longer than 3.5 cm, rounded at apex, and thalli often with at least some spotting or diffuse coloring with anthocyanic pigment). North-eastern Lower Saxony, Germany, 2009 North-eastern Lower Saxony, Germany, 2009 TYPE: Lenticularia monorhiza Friche-Joset & Montandon, nom. little less) that contains a single ribbed seed. LEMI2: Lemna minima Chevall. Lemna minor, sometimes commonly called lesser duckweed, is perhaps the most wide-spread of the duckweeds, being found throughout the world. Location Status Classification. (Duckweeds). Mailstop Code: 1103 The thallus has a slightly Common name. (Duckweed) in the state. USDA PLANTS Database. Cooperative Extension, which staffs local offices in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. thallus (a body that combines the functions of leaf and stem); it is Additional comments A cosmopolitan genus containing 14 species. To some people, duckweed may appear to be some kind of algae, but they pouches. Scientific name Lemna minor. (Buffalofish), Moxostoma carinatum (River ... We do not claim to cure any disease which is considered' incurable ' on the basis of scientific facts by modern medicine .The website’s content is not a substitute for … obscura Austin Classification Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report. This rootlet is slender and white with a tip that is usually obtuse. On rare occasions, Duckweed Moth); see Harms & Grodowitz (2009), Covell green and flat.
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