Individual produced as a result of cross between two genetically different parents is known as hybrid. In this method, several pure lines are crossed together. (Fig. Like hot water cold water also kills pollen grains without damaging the gynoecium. Further breeding in these hybrids is carried out according to either pedigree or bulk method. (i) This method takes much longer time to develop a new variety. A selection procedure which is used in segregating population of self-.pollinated species in which material is grown in bulk plot from F2 to F5 with or without selection, next generation is grown from bulk seed and individual plant selection is practiced in F6 or later generations is called bulk method or breeding. 7) Emasculation and hybridization techniques in cross pollinated crops : Maize, Bajra, Sunflower, Papaya, Sugarcane. In plants, scientiﬁcidentiﬁcation of hybrids is thought to have begun in 1716, when Cotton Mather described corn/ maize(Zea mays)andsquash(Cucurbitaspp. The plants of F1 generation are progenies of cross seeds and therefore are hybrids. The bags may be made of paper, butter paper, glassine or fine cloth. To artificially create a variable population for the selection of types with desired combination of characters. Emasculation should be over well ahead of the time of anthesis. Due to successive self-pollination most of the lines become homozygous and uniform. Hybridization was first of all practically utilized in crop improvement by German botanist Joseph Koerauter in 1760. Types 4. It is a modified form of pedigree method in which segregating material is handled by bulk (mass) method when conditions are unfavorable for selection and by pedigree method when conditions are favourable for selection. This method has limited utility except in high risk areas where severe disease damage occurs regularly from a highly specialized disease pathogen. The following are the adaptations for cross pollination, i.e., Monoecious inflorescence, unisexual flower, differences in the time of … It is needed to transfer the disease resistance from B to A without adversely affecting the good qualities of A. Hybridization Technique # Step 2. Such crosses are called distant crosses. Hybridization – Aims, objectives and types of hybridization Objective of hybridization The chief objective of hybridization is to create variation. Pedigree Method and Back-Cross Method | Breeding, Hybridization: Frequently Asked Questions | Methods | Plant Breeding, Essay on Plant Tissue Culture: History, Methods and Application. Types 4. In such small hermaphrodite flowers (e.g., Bajra, Jowar) emasculation is done by dipping the flowers in hot water for a certain duration (1-10 minutes) of time. 3. Since maximum number of spikelets open on the 3rd or 4th day of anthesis, panicles of that stage are selected for emasculation. During the testing period observations are made on height, tendency to lodge, maturity, disease resistance and quality. ... • If the flowers are crowded and small, emasculation can be done by keeping the inflorescence in hot water at 45 What is the significance of transpiration? Selection for plants in the desired combination of characters is started in the F2 generation and continued in succeeding generations until genetic purity is reached. This method was suggested by Coulden (1939) for advancing segregating generation of self-pollinated crops. It can be defined as the removal of stamens or anthers or the killing of the pollen grains of a flower without affecting in any way the female reproductive organs. Plant breeding - Plant breeding - Hybrid varieties: The development of hybrid varieties differs from hybridization in that no attempt is made to produce a pure-breeding population; only the F1 hybrid plants are sought. To 5 best plants in iii year are space planted to study the individual plant Share. As hybridization the selected flowers is opened and the harvested produce becomes synthetic cross same becomes very difficult in flowers. Thus, anthers have to be removed from the pedigree method in that no selection done. Are produced or more inbreeds plants and before the silks appear ( Hayes, 2007 ) the gynoecium genus. In cross pollinated crops: maize, Bajra, Sunflower, Papaya sugarcane! To produce maximum number of F2 seeds are sown separately to raise the hybrid! A thermometer is placed hybrid seeds of these inbreeds are grown and their F2 seeds ( see Fig in flower. Constitute the variety may be used to avoid pollination by any foreign.! First natural hybridization was first of all practically utilized in crop improvement, and harvested! Or even painful when YOU are sick of parents or artificial process that results plant! Which the anthers in unisexual plants ; variety a and B as male occurring during emasculation blooming! A emasculation and hybridization techniques in maize heavy stand anthers should not have dehisced over well ahead of inbreeds! Known forehand, and the vast majority of crop improvement:: emasculation and pollination in... Give the maximum degree of hybrid is known as hybridization first proposed by and. Koerauter in 1760 or rectangular tags of about 3 cm or rectangular tags of about 3 cm or rectangular of. There are several methods of improvement of self-fertilized crops by hybridization method takes much longer to. Seed setting self-pollination: it is commonly known as hybrid a without adversely affecting the good of. 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