modern trends in islamic psychology
Abu-Raiya, H. (2015). Professionals, researchers, and academicians have contributed to the literature indicating further progress (Richards et al., 2015). Both religion and psychological science describe the inherent nature of human behavior, thinking, functioning, emotional distress, and coping, albeit conceptualized differently. Hamdan, A. Moving toward culturally competent practice with Muslims: Modifying cognitive therapy with Islamic tenets. Pakistani researchers Dasti and Sitwat (2014) developed a multidimensional measure of Islamic spirituality after consultations with scholars and mental health experts. (2012). Though Khalily uses modern CBT terminologies, such as “cognitive restructuring”, to describe some of these interventions, they are demonstrations of early indigenous Islamic methodologies that included cognitive strategies preceding the birth of CBT in the 20th century. Naz, S., & Khalily, M. T. (2015) Indigenous adoption of Novaco’s model of anger management among individuals with psychiatric problems in Pakistan. Diversity and cultural sensitivity has become a core component of the ethical delivery of psychotherapeutic intervention. Increased interest in the integration of spirituality and religion into therapy is reflected in the establishment of Division 36 (the Society for the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality) within the American Psychological Association (Piedmont, 2013). Amer and Jalal (2012) conducted an evaluation of mainstream psychotherapeutic orientations providing cultural sensitivity considerations for working with Muslims. Psychiatric treatments involving religion: Psychotherapy from an Islamic perspective. Abdullah and colleagues (2013) promote treating Generalized Anxiety Disorder through “Islamic Psychotherapy.” The authors used pillars of faith (iman) to treat the anxiety: belief in God, performance of prayers, contemplation (tafakkur), remembrance of Allah (dhikr), and belief that fate is from God. This is a 60-item questionnaire that is very comprehensive and assesses seven factors: Islamic Beliefs; Islamic Ethical Principles & Universality; Islamic Religious Struggle; Islamic Religious Duty, Obligation & Exclusivism; Islamic Positive Religious Coping & Identification; Punishing Allah Reappraisal; and Islamic Religious Conversion. Abu-Raiya, H. (2014). B. These manuals adapt the cognitive strategies in efforts of reframing cognitions drawn from within the Islamic tradition as a modality to enhance therapeutic efficacy. [Syed Azhar Ali Rizvi] Home. Naeem, F., Gobbi, M., Ayub, M., & Kingdon, D. (2009). Obsessional disorders in al-Balkhi’s 9th century treatise: Sustenance of the body and soul. Rippy, A. E., & Newman, E. (2008). This was among the first of such literature providing an entire treatise demonstrating the sophistication of early understandings of clinical psychology dating back to the 9th century. Recognition of the presence of an ethical obligation for mental health providers to become competent and knowledgeable in religious and spiritual aspects related to providing treatment (Gonsiorek, Richards, Pargament, & McMinn, 2009; Richards & Bergin, 2014). Theme 2: Historical accounts of Islamic Psychology, Theme 3: Emergence of theoretical models and frameworks of Islamic Psychology. Much of the current research tends to focus on general Islamic themes or concepts, rather than a more sophisticated formulation of the human psyche that is likely to be found in the wealth of untouched literature in the Islamic sciences. A., & Allen, G. E. K. (2015). Gonsiorek, J. C., Richards, P. S., Pargament, K. I., & McMinn, M. R. (2009). In P. Huguelet & H. G. Koenig (Eds.). Translation and annotation of Abu Zayd al-Balkhi’s. While this could be a useful way to understand a possible framework of an Islamic approach, the research identifies these themes through the qualitative data recorded from the interviews of a small group practicing at an Islamic counseling center in Malaysia, and does not outline a specific approach. The use of this measure in research and clinical settings may be impractical due to its length of 100 multiple-choice questions. However, it can be argued that religiosity is a complex concept that requires multifaceted assessment. The tension between psychology and theology: The etymological roots. Ibn Sina (981 - 1037 CE) was the major influence upon the history of Islamic psychology, taking the ideas of the Greek philosophers and adapting them to fit Islamic doctrine. This study reveals a consistent growth in research across six major areas of integration between Islamic traditions and modern psychology. Keshavarzi, H., & Haque, A. Afterlife motivation scale: Correlations with maladjustment and incremental validity in Iranian Muslims. Concept of personality development in the light of Islamic thoughts. The authors found good construct and content validity along with moderate to high internal reliability. Amer, M. M., & Jalal, B. According to the authors, BARCS demonstrated excellent reliability and strong internal validity. During the last few decades, a significant amount of attention has been given to the role of religion and spirituality in clinical practice. First, there is the challenge of the West to traditional Islamic philosophical and cultural principles and the desire to establish a form of thought which is distinctive. Another similar approach includes a culturally sensitive CBT model by Hamdan (2008) and is related to cognitive restructuring (Table 2). Measuring exposure to racism: Development and validation of a race-related stressor scale (RRSS) for Asian American Vietnam veterans. Rippy and Newman (2008) developed the Perceived Religious Discrimination Scale through adaptation from the Race-Related Stressor Scale (Loo, Fairbank, Scurfield, Ruch, King, & Adams, 2001). The first set of issues concerns the academic conceptualisation of the study of education within diverse historical and contemporary Islamic cultural, intellectual, political, theological and spiritual traditions. Islamic Psychology as a foundation and basic concepts that became the initial foundation of psychotherapy with Islamic insight.Islam is a very great religion, which gives enlightenment to human beings in various aspects related to the universe, people and life. Haque and Keshavarzi (2014) focus on indigenous Islamic techniques that are guided by therapeutic markers. (2004). Researchers can put their efforts into better areas of study instead of trying to reinvent the wheel and students can benefit from this as a guide to help evaluate their career choices and identify areas of interest. Psychology from Islamic perspective: Contributions of early Muslim scholars and challenges to contemporary Muslim psychologists. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 5, Casebook for a spiritual strategy in counseling and psychotherapy. A comprehensive research review from these countries is essential to assess the development of Islamic psychology and therapies. contributions of prominent early Muslim scholars to psychology and outlines the challenges faced by today's Muslims in adapting to the Western theories. (2009). However, while it gives examples for many potential situations, it does not go into detail in any of the methods and thus may be more useful as an orientation to potential approaches rather than an exhaustive treatment manual for clinicians. Awaad, R., & Ali, S. (2015). The final version had eight factors: Self-Discipline, Quest and Search for Divinity, Anger and Expansive Behavior, Self-Aggrandizement, Feeling of Connectedness with Allah, Meanness-Generosity, Tolerance-Intolerance, and Islamic Practices. The passage is then framed in such a way that reinforces the notion that God asks us to do things that are good for us even if we do not feel like doing them. Development of a multidimensional measure of Islamic spirituality (MMS). Integrating indigenous healing methods in therapy: Muslim beliefs and practices. This is a 19-item instrument with two subscales: Islamic Beliefs and Islamic Behavioral Practices. Khalily, M. T. (2012). Modern psychology and its offshoots of personal development and self-help trends offer a lot of pertinent ideas and resources that all people, including the Muslim community, need desperately as societies become increasingly globalized and disconnected from the ancient wisdom that was inherent in more traditional, local communities and holistic lifestyles. (2008). It would be helpful to see these assessment tools further normed on Muslims from other areas of the world. Therefore, a natural connection between the material mind and spiritual self in reference to the word’s history may follow. While academic inquiries into the integration of the Islamic tradition within the psychotherapeutic process are still developing, there exists a wealth of literature that examines the use of religious and spiritual approaches in the general population. These models require the sophistication to answer the questions of defining psychopathology and laying out a coherent framework of intervention that naturally emerges out of an understanding of human psychology in Islamic terms. As mentioned, there are few models of psychotherapeutic care that are authentic to the Islamic tradition that does not begin with a priori Eurocentric assumptions or reflect such notions of human psychology. Haque (2004) published a review of the works of many early Muslim scholars from the 9th to the 12th centuries; the work indicated the birth of psychology in the Muslim world preceding modern psychology by at least a century. It seems appropriate, then, that the two should be linked. Faith-adapted psychological therapies for depression and anxiety: Systematic review and meta-analysis. An investigation of the factor structure and psychometric properties of the COPE scale with a Muslim migrant population in Australia. Religious psychology in Malaysia. (2006). The Muslims’ perceptions and attitudes to mental health (M-PAMH) scale. He also highlights a relational model of understanding human personality from an Islamic perspective. Exploring the Islamic tradition for resonance and dissonance with cognitive therapy for depression. The subscale measuring beliefs yielded a low reliability (.66) but the behavioral practices subscale yielded a good reliability (.81). However important, the “mind” orintellect, with its practical and theoretical aspects, is only part ofthe falâsifa's “science of thesoul.” Their main sources are found in three Aristoteliantreatises: On the Soul (De anima), On Sense and Sensibilia(De Sensu et Sensibili), and On Memory and Recollection(De Memoria et Remini… The Knowledge-Practice Measure of Islamic Religiosity yielded adequate content validity and sound reliability (Cronbach’s alpha of .92 for the full scale). Western psychology and Muslim psychology in dialogue: Comparisons between a Qura’nic theory of personality and Freud’s and Jung’s ideas. The researchers found that these five strategies were effective in reducing anger in Muslim clients. Attitudes toward counseling and alternative support among Muslims in Toledo, Ohio. Sufism is the honored and accepted way of reaching self-realization in the light of Qur`anic teachings and the revealed practices of Muhammad, the most recent and final prophet of the true way to the world. The International Association of Islamic Psychology (IAIP) is a professional body which aims to set and maintain a high standard of research and practice in this specialized field. These models must be robust enough to permit accommodation of empirical literature on human psychology in the field and best practices. Islam itself is deeply interested in human psychology. Hermansen, M. K. (1982). Rizvi, A. (1997). Earlier in 1979, Malik Badri wrote an influential book critiquing the use of Eurocentric theories with Muslims and encouraging Muslim psychologists to tap into their own indigenous concepts and traditions. Ghorbani, Watson, and Shahmohamadi (2008) combined two scales measuring religious commitments into a brief six-item instrument, the Afterlife Motivation Scale. For example, in addressing the need to introduce positive cognitions, the manual provides the passage from the Qur’an that states “it may be that you dislike a thing while it is good for you, and it may be that you love a thing while it is evil for you, and Allah knows, while you do not know”. Some cultural beliefs may posit that primary theological principles cannot be subjected to empiricism, due to their divine nature. In S. Ahmed and M. M. Amer (Eds.). This review explores the trends that have emerged to integrate the Islamic tradition into modern psychological theory and practice in the last ten years. Integrating indigenous healing methods in therapy: Muslim beliefs and practices. Specifically, theoretical models that are grounded in the philosophy of Islamic thought and within the Islamic tradition need to be expanded. Spiritual interventions in psychotherapy: Evaluations by highly religious clients. (2000) Holistic health, healing and spirituality. Abu Raiya (2014) compared Islamic theory of personality with psychodynamic approaches suggesting new avenues for dialogue to advance the field of psychology. In the same way, Avicenna's Islamic psychology propose… Researchers from around the world have conducted numerous studies in the last few decades exploring the unique cultural and religious nuances of the application of clinical psychology to Muslim clients as a response to the traditional Eurocentric narratives of psychology. Dwairy (2009) highlights how attempts to reveal unconscious content and promoting self-actualization can be counterproductive for Muslims who can benefit more from metaphor psychotherapy; this further illustrates the necessity of knowing the Muslim psyche in the appropriate delivery of culturally congruent care. (2004). The result of the analysis showed that Islamic psychology intervention is divided into two categories: original Islamic psychology intervention, and integrative Islamic psychology intervention. Whereas CBT is more of a therapeutic modality and less of a paradigmatic framework, it offers considerable flexibility for practitioners to adapt to clients’ own personal and religious values. Vignette for schema focused therapy in great detail before providing specifics from the tradition... 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